Citation Style and Reference Formats
Page last updated September 17, 2021 by C. Rodkin
ACM IN-TEXT CITATION STYLE
The in-text citation style is as follows: For parenthetical citations we enclose the number of the reference, thus: . Sequential parenthetical citations are enclosed in square brackets and separated by commas, thus [1, 2]. When a citation is part of a sentence, the name of the author is NOT enclosed in brackets, but the year is: "So we see that Burando et al. ..."
SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT REFERENCE FORMATS
Reference linking and citation counts are facilitated by use of these standard reference formats. Please adhere to the reference formats that we use for ACM publications. If you do not, and your paper is accepted, it will be returned to you for proper formatting.
By using your BibTeX (.bib) file with the appropriate .bst file (ACM Reference Format) your references should require minimum editing.
ACM's preference is for full names and not initials or abbreviations.
Here are examples of the most common reference types formatted for ACM journals.
Note: For BibTeX examples see: http://www.acm.org/publications/authors/bibtex-formatting
For a paginated article in a journal:
 Patricia S. Abril and Robert Plant. 2007. The patent holder's dilemma: Buy, sell, or troll? Commun. ACM 50, 1 (Jan. 2007), 36-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1188913.1188915
For an enumerated article in a journal:
 Sarah Cohen, Werner Nutt, and Yehoshua Sagic. 2007. Deciding equivalences among conjunctive aggregate queries. J. ACM 54, 2, Article 5 (April 2007), 50 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1219092.1219093
For a monograph (whole book):
 David Kosiur. 2001. Understanding Policy-Based Networking (2nd. ed.). Wiley, New York, NY.
For a divisible book (anthology or compilation):
 Ian Editor (Ed.). 2007. The title of book one (1st. ed.). The name of the series one, Vol. 9. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-09237-4
For a multi-volume work (as a book):
 Donald E. Knuth. 1997. The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 1: Fundamental Algorithms (3rd. ed.). Addison Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.
For a (paginated proceedings) article in a conference proceedings (conference, symposium or workshop):
 Sten Andler. 1979. Predicate path expressions. In Proceedings of the 6th. ACM SIGACT-SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL '79), January 29 - 31, 1979, San Antonio, Texas. ACM Inc., New York, NY, 226-236. https://doi.org/10.1145/567752.567774
For a Patent:
 Joseph Scientist. 2009. The fountain of youth. (Aug. 2009). Patent No. 12345, Filed July 1st., 2008, Issued Aug. 9th., 2009.
For an informally published work (such as some technical reports and dissertations):
 David Harel. 1978. LOGICS of Programs: AXIOMATICS and DESCRIPTIVE POWER. MIT Research Lab Technical Report TR-200. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
 Kenneth L. Clarkson. 1985. Algorithms for Closest-Point Problems (Computational Geometry). Ph.D. Dissertation. Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. UMI Order Number: AAT 8506171.
 David A. Anisi. 2003. Optimal Motion Control of a Ground Vehicle. Master's thesis. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
For an online document/WWW resource: Website year can be found at the bottom of the website page or by viewing page properties/source to see when the page was last modified.
 Harry Thornburg. 2001. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics. (March 2001). Retrieved March 2, 2005 from http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/bayes/bayes.html
 ACM. Association for Computing Machinery: Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession. Retrieved from http://www.acm.org/.
 Wikipedia. 2017. WikipediA: the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.wikipedia.org/.
For a Video (two examples):
 Dave Novak. 2003. Solder man. Video. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2003 Video Review on Animation theater Program: Part I - Vol. 145 (July 27-27, 2003). ACM Press, New York, NY, 4. DOI:https://doi.org/99.9999/woot07-S422
 Barack Obama. 2008. A more perfect union. Video. (5 March 2008). Retrieved March 21, 2008 from http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6528042696351994555
 Martha Constantinou. 2016. New physics searches from nucleon matrix elements in lattice QCD. arXiv:1701.00133. Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.00133
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